Literally speaking, from the Chinese point of view, he is a great man who can compare with Confucius on the east side across the sea.
First, let's briefly talk about what kind of person Choi Choong is.
Born in 984, he passed the state examination in 1005 (the 8th year of King Mokjong's reign), served in various government posts, and rose to the highest office in 1047. But there's no significant achievement that's noticeably big. Of course, he was a great bureaucrat with various policies, including legal reform, so it's not that King Munjong disparaged the historical fact that he didn't retire Choi Chung. However, the Battle of Gwiju, Gang Gam-chan, Samguk Sagi, Kim Bu-sik… The achievement that connects like this is invisible.
So why did he get the name 'Sea Prince' and go down in history?
# The first prestigious private school old school
Choe Chung served four kings in government service for a long time, and the kings loved him very much because of his abundant knowledge and ability. King Munjong took the throne and appointed Choe Chung to the highest authority, Munhaja, and later offered to retire several times, but he refused to accept it. In this process, it is clear that the servant was very competent and favored by the king.
Then, he retired in 1053 (the 7th year of King Munjong's reign) and started to teach studying abroad at the foot of Mt. Songak in Gaeseong in 1055. These days, it can be described as a private school or private academy.
The name was Gujae Hakdang, which was divided into nine classes, including malignant, popular, public, business, Hodo, Solseong, Jindeok, Daehwa, Daebing, and so on, and after Choi Chung's death, he was called a literary gongdo according to Siho. Siho is a special name given by the state to the dead or given to the dead monarch by the next monarch. Nine classes were divided according to their skills, and if their skills were proven, they could be promoted to higher class.
At that time, there was a state-run university called Kukjagam, which taught studying abroad, but many people preferred the old school. There may be many reasons for this, but I can guess that it was probably because of a person named Choi Choong. The surest way to become a powerful person in Goryeo is to take the past exam, which was created after retirement by the most powerful person of the time, so it is natural that expectations are high. In fact, the instructors of the old school are from the old school, and there were seniors who passed the exam in the past, so it is the best preparation system for the past. If there is such a rumor, talented students will naturally visit the old school first, so a virtuous circle is created in which many people who have studied in the old school have passed the exam in the past.
# What's the beginning of 'Sea Prince'?
The rumors spread throughout the country and other Confucian scholars began to follow Choi Chung one by one to create a private school. At that time, the 12 private schools that became famous were called the 12 Gongdo, and the place that was recognized as the best was Munheon Gongdo, or Gujae School.
This may be seen as a negative view of the beginning of the Goryeo version of private academies. In addition, rich aristocratic children are driven to private schools, where they create conditions for forming new forces of their own, so there is room for political division to begin. Many private schools built across the country will eventually lead to the form of Seowon, which is hard to say that they have nothing to do with Bungdang politics.
There are numerous academies, and among them, more and more students enter government posts through the old schools, and they also form a force. They needed their own advanced strategy. So Choi Chung's disciples decided to raise their teachers. From Confucianism, he took the name of Confucius, who was worshipped as a god, and began to call Choechung 'Hae-dong Confucius'. This is because they give Confucius the meaning of those who have learned.
This is not the only part where we judge Choi Chung badly. In the early Joseon Dynasty, he was undervalued because he was only devoted to past exams. It is the opposite of Jeong Mong-ju being regarded as the founder of Neo-Confucianism in Joseon. Perhaps if Jeong Mong-ju was a Neo-Confucian scholar who kept the dynasty until his death, Choi Chung could be interpreted as a scholar who ran a private academy for his past generations. It seems to be a poor result compared to the fame of the time, as Neo-Confucian Ju Se-bung honored Choe Chung in the Confucian academy in the mid-16th century. However, Choi Chung's assessment is divided because the education situation of Goryeo was so poor that it was only a sense of national pride.
It is up to you to evaluate whether you are a true educator to widely promote education abroad or whether you have trained private institutes to provide the beginning of Bungdang politics.
# Why Confucianism's Neo-Confucianism?
Then, why did Confucian Neo-Confucianism become the governing ideology from the Silla Dynasty to the Goryeo Dynasty to the Joseon Dynasty? Joseon was a country that put up the banner of Confucianism, so even in Silla and Goryeo, which revered Buddhism, it tried to run state affairs with the ideology of Confucianism. Why would he do that?
To begin with, Neo-Confucianism is a political philosophy and a social philosophy that can be applied to reality.
Until the Silla Dynasty, it was a strict system of bone products. I couldn't take power without royalty. But as society matures to a certain extent, there are people who accumulate economic wealth. For them, the concept of heavenly status, the «thousands» is unacceptable. For those who have acquired wealth and fame through their own efforts, the pedigree system is an unacceptable punishment. Then, when Goryeo was founded, the powerful people of the provinces came to have a chance. Become a 'family of public officials' and have power. In conclusion, it is a concept that added people who supported the opening of a powerful group of people who were limited to the royal family, who are the heavenly grandchildren. The harm that follows in this process is the family-centered power structure. When only the royal family was in power, it was a matter of brothers or cousins. In fact, everyone was of the same royal family, but when the royal family took power, a structure was formed to have more power around the family of meritorious subjects, or families.
There was no political philosophy to control such a formed identity. The stories that Buddhism talks about are the moral ones that apply to everyday life. Don't kill, do self-reflection, don't take others' things. It is very difficult to explain the purchase of a government office with money as a Buddhist doctrine. The goal of people's acceptance of Buddhism is to live a good life, reflect on themselves, and eventually reach paradise, the world after death.
However, Confucianism emerged during the period of turmoil in the Spring and Autumn period of China and grew closely related to real politics. It is a very attractive study for a state-run hypocrite because it has a status of «johnbi» and a system of receiving information based on «manuiyeji» teaches the path of «chikguk pyungheongheongheongha.» 먹튀없는 토토사이트 추천 사이트
For this reason, in the past, Buddhism was promoted as the basis of studying abroad and as a way of enlightening the people in everyday life.