US Music in Wartime

Music played a great role at all times. It calms down and pacifies, or vice-versa, enlightens people and provokes them to action. There is no doubt that different types of music were common for every major historical event and influenced its outcome. The main objective of this paper is to discuss the music common for the period of development of America.
George Washington is undoubtedly one of the most famous and productive Americans that lived during the period of its liberation. He was a popular personality in the social and political spheres that numerous musicians of that time could not pass him by. During Washington’s reign, many songwriters and composers dedicated their works to him and the events that took place in his life. The range of works varies from songs published in magazines to marches and odes composed by famous artists of that time.
There were three marches dedicated to George Washington and no one knows their author. There exists a thought that Francis Hopkinson wrote these marches. On his birthday, Washington was presented with a song written for that particular occasion, “Ode on the Birthday of his Excellency George Washington.” In 1786, William Shelby, a musician from Boston, composed “Ode in Honour of General Washington”, which was presented on April 27.
From May 25th till September 17th, 1787, Philadelphia held the Constitutional Convention. Alexander Reinagle composed the “Federal March” to celebrate the acceptance of the Constitution and federal government by the first ten states. On July 4, 1788, it was performed during the gala day held in Philadelphia. More than one hundred years later, the President’s March was revived and played during the military parade before President McKinley in Philadelphia on October 27, 1898.
In 1788, Francis Hopkins wrote a series of eight songs and dedicated them to Washington. George Washington wrote many letters during his lifetime, but the most gracious and charming letters were addressed to Hopkinson. The volume contained eight songs, but was called “Seven Songs”. After the volume had been printed, Hopkinson added the remark and the eighth song. There is a grand speculation about the creator of “President’s March”. However, it does not matter who wrote or composed it because it was played on all occasions by different bands and orchestras. Playing it in theaters was unavoidable, because people were screaming and demanding it.
The 4th of July, 1789, was a day when the Declaration of Independence was signed, and it was the first day people celebrated as a nation. It was indicated by the creation of “Ode for American Independence” written by Daniel George and Horatio Garnet (words and music respectively). It was printed in the Massachusetts Magazine, in July, 1789. The final lines of it hailed President George Washington and peace.
“Ode to Columbia’s Favourite Son”, “Washington”, “A song On General Washington” and many other works were dedicated to George Washington during his famous New England tour. In these songs, he was praised as a hero, peacemaker, and savior of an independent America.
However, none of the songs, marches or tunes shows a great love of the countrymen to Washington as their grief and sorrow was caused by his death on December 14, 1799. On this occasion, Benjamin Carr had his “Dead March and Monody” ready for performance twelve days after Washington’s death. Most of the music of that time was created by the New England composers who were influenced by the European music of the period (specifically the works of later Haydn). Van Hagen composed “Funeral Dirge”, and Abraham Wood presented his “Funeral Elegy”. Both of them were dedicated to the memory of the First President of America and General George Washington.
During the years of development, many things changed in America. Political policy and attitude of the colonists to their native country have significantly changed as well. During the years before and after the American Revolution, there were no American songwriters and composers. Many songwriters borrowed their songs from English composers and used topics connected to England and its King. For example, the printed version of the “Federal March'', composed by Alexander Reinagle, which was issued in 1788, had instructions for the trumpets. However, the march was played for the first time almost ten years after the American Revolution. Many of the music pieces were composed to be performed rather by British orchestras and bands, than American ones. Nevertheless, during the following Mexican-American War and Civil War, such old British songs as «The Girl I Left behind Me,» «The British Grenadiers'', „Yankee Doodle'', and marches of the day inspired soldiers for action and reminded them of their hometowns and things they left for war.
While the first settlers were travelling to the new land, the most popular type of songwriting was a broadside ballad. These ballads were imprinted on the sheets of paper, often containing the tune and rhymes. Such ballads contained all recent information about the latest murders, executions, fires, robberies, etc. During the development of the colonies and America, some authors memorized these events in their songs and compositions. For example, John Hill Hewitt applied this style in his “The Minstrel’s Return’d from the War”, which signified the revival of the popular songs in America after the Civil War. The song was very similar to Hewitt father’s song and contained nostalgia for the battles and heroic deaths during the American Revolution and afteryears.
American music travelled a very long and difficult road. Through the first years, most of the settlers did not understand the music that was quite different from the psalms that worshiped God. Francis Hopkinson is the first American songwriter, a friend of George Washington. His contribution to the music of the 18th century is doubtless.
Stephen Foster was one of the best-known songwriters born in America. Though his last years of life were not very fruitful and he was preoccupied with his debts, Foster was the first American songwriter who supported his life with music.
It is clear that songs have a great influence on the psychological state of soldiers during the battles. Throughout the major wars that took place in America, many songwriters made their contribution to the martial activities by writing songs about heroes of the war, major battles, and soldiers missing their homes. John Hewitt, mentioned above, wrote a song “All Quiet along the Potomac Tonight”, which is considered to be his best work ever. It is dedicated to the soldering life during the Civil War. “Dixie Land” is also one of the popular songs of that time. Daniel Emmet is the author of this song; however, it soon became popular enough to take place in American folklore.
During the Mexican-American War, many army bands were playing popular songs like “Yankee Doodle” to improve the state of soldiers at the camps and battlefields. Irregular troops and militia, which also participated in action, sang such folk songs as “The Girl I Left behind Me”. Those songs showed homesickness of the troops and purity of camp life. The soldiers were given eight dollars a day during that war, so that was the reason for Jesse Hutchinson to write his famous “Eight Dollars a Day”. The song showed the Mexican-American War as a conquering one.
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The aim of work teams is to maximize efforts in a task that a member cannot do as an individual. It enables members to work efficiently in accomplishing their goal. As a result, there is a joint effort to bring the desired result since members work to accomplish their tasks as a team. During summer breaks, I got an opportunity to work at a local community organization. During that time the work group formed a significant part of the job description. For example, in the previous summer, the organization received new employees on one Saturday. Since the organization encourages work teams in addressing issues, regular employees gather to address the situation. Each team addresses different issues. For example, the team I was in had the task of delegating roles to new members, depending on an individual’s qualification.
A group of formal structure in an organization. As a result, it is a distinct unit or department, which works independently from other groups to attain the organizational goal. For example, the community organization I work at has the client service groups. In the group, an individual’s task may be on one client or regional client, while another person may handle the needs of individuals in the region. Work groups have permanent fixtures, and their job description is formal. Therefore, members share results since they strive to achieve a common objective through their tasks.
On the other hand, a team comprises individuals from different departments within an organization. They collaborate to accomplish short-term goals or projects. For example, in my situation, the team lasted for one day, and after the task was completed, members returned back to their respective fields. A team aims at leveraging the collective expertise of its members. Additionally, teams enable an organization in addressing potential problems. It is because they are short-term and require no formal approval. As a result, teams are productive since they provide an opportunity to work more efficiently.
Building a team is an ongoing process. Members of a team not only share expectations, but also require tolerance. It is because a team involves people with diverse backgrounds. Additionally, team members must recognize their roles and utilize them in developing the team. Such roles include an organizer and an accomplisher. I played the role of a shaper. It is because I am dynamic on how I approach issues; I am proactive, argumentative, and impatient. I make sure that the team meets deadlines. Secondly, a team, just like a group, has a life. Stages in the group life are the following: forming stage, storming stage, norming stage, and performance stage. During the forming stage, everyone in my group was enthusiastic about the task ahead. Since there was no formal selection process, everyone joined a team of his or her choice. During this stage, the team leader clarified tasks and expectations. As the teams progressed, members expressed concerns on the ability of some members, and for some time members could not come to a consensus. However, team members resolved their differences. It created tolerance among the members. As a result, team members were more productive. Consequently, the team accomplished its task as required and adjourned.
Finally, for a group to function efficiently, its members should not allow assumptions to direct them. They should encourage diversity, support each other, and foster equity. However, motivation plays a significant role in enabling a group or a team to accomplish a goal. The strategy a team leader employs should motivate workers in enhancing productivity. It may change depending on the work situation, task, and time. To facilitate it, team leaders should show a positive attitude, define goals, maintain clear communication channels, and offer mentorship.
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Factors in Capital Budgeting Decisions

Capital budgeting is an integral part in management. Hence, organizations such as Costco Wholesale must pay attention to certain factors as captured in the paper. The capital budgeting exercise entails planning a feasible implementation of a project for the purposes of investment. In the subject case, the assignment for discussion regards implementation of a new computer network system that reduces the time taken between placing an order and making a delivery in Costco Wholesale. The costs for the project are estimated to be 10% of the previous year’s profits.
The following factors are critical towards determination of relevance to undertake an investment project. The first factor is the return to be earned from an investment. In business, the main objective is to make profits. Various investment appraisal techniques would be used to determine the viability of a project. A positive net present value or net worth of a project would indicate earning of a profit while a negative result would imply incurring of losses in case the project is implemented. The amount to be earned as a return from investment remains the most important determinant towards the implementation of capital projects.
The time to be spent to implement a project is another determinant. Projects that reasonably take short time to implement would be favored over those that take long periods. Undertaking of projects within a less period allows the management to foresee any extra costs and cater for them. However, those that consume time and take long periods into the future become difficult to predict. Such a situation leads to an expense of extra costs by an organization, which means these projects present a challenge.
The above factors are important in the capital budgeting process. As was already pointed out, the return on investment is the most important determinant. The worth of a new project dictates whether an investment should be undertaken or shelved. A project that guarantees the highest return on investment should be preferred against those that promise low returns. Therefore, it is important every company understands the amount of return to be earned.
The appropriate and sound criteria must be devised to determine the ranking of capital budgeting decisions. The most important criteria are based on the results of the return on investment to be earned. Those projects that would earn high returns would be preferred for implementation as argued by Varshney. Some criteria are more significant than others are. For instance, in the subject case, the time factor may not be of great importance. A project may take a very short period to implement, but it does not promise any notable income to a company. Such criteria may not influence investment decisions. Nonetheless, the time taken to carry out a project should be reasonable.
To calculate the return on investment, the total costs and total income to be earned from the implementation of a project must be computed. The average costs to be incurred annually compared to the average profit to be earned annually are useful in indicating whether a return is earned or a loss incurred. The results from the ratio between the average annual profit and average annual costs expressed in a percentage represent the return on investment. Alternatively, the total profit compared to the total costs represents the return on investment. A capital budgeting process should only fund projects that guarantee a return to the company.
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Ethical Leadership on Human Resources

H.S.R.I provides consultation and conducts research at state and federal levels in development disabilities, child and family services, mental health and substance use. The institution was started with an objective of transforming the lives of the humble and vulnerable. The organization's interest has been manifested by the involvement in quality improvement in a number of issues such as family support and deinstitutionalization.
In the face of resource scarcity in human services systems, the organization developed refined strategies to be used in the planning framework. The frameworks have been adopted by various states such as Georgia, Missouri and Colorado. H.S.R.I takes part in programs of various states and helps them to create infrastructure and facilities necessary for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities and help organizations find competent employees who provide quality support to the community. H.S.R.I staff have participated in implementation of community support programs at Mental Health Institute and housing design for disabled people.
Another project of H.S.R.I was the contract that they received from the human services department in Oregon. The main aim of the program is to review eighteen other programs to ensure the best results possible. The program was such that it could indicate how each of the other programs could be improved. This facilitated the best implementation of projects and also it helped in reviewing the audit compliance of each project. The mission of H.S.R.I works towards meeting the following guidelines: assist public managers and human services that support work for disabled, expand the use of research to enhance performance and improve the lives of people. The organization facilitates involvement in policy shaping that prioritizes and practices individual and families support.
H.S.R.I has taken part in various research projects that portray ethical leadership. In the 1980s, H.S.R.I developed a report on quality for the department of health and services of the United States. The report improved the quality of services and acted as a guide in the field of human services. H.S.R.I designed a Quadrant Method, it was meant to assist the Institute of Mental Health in determining the potential number of citizens with persistent mental illness who require services.
The staff took part in a follow up study for experiences of people who receive community support. The institute, together with Developmental Disabilities Council, has taken part in programs that promote policies for family support. More to that H.S.R.I has incorporated an evaluation program, Technical Evaluation Center (T.E.C). The program is used to evaluate services and give technical assistance to the mental health system for improvement of planning and implementation of operations of mental health services.
H.S.R.I practices self-advocacy. This refers to people speaking up for themselves without fear. The organization advocates for people to make life decisions without undue influence. People with disabilities are rendered powerless and those with intellectual disabilities live their entire life in homes and institutions where they have no control over their lives. Self-advocacy in people with disabilities is called self-empowerment or patient empowerment and it encourages taking care and support of themselves in the journey to their recovery. H.S.R.I has worked for over three decades with people with disabilities in supporting their organization, giving information and providing guidance in bodies that take part in policy-making.
In conclusion, the services rendered by the H.S.R.I have had a very massive influence on people, including ones with disabilities. The organization has embarked on quality improvement, family support and performance measurements. The adoption of policies have led to exploration of best practices in improving quality of the peoples lives, enriching system assurance, and providing technical assistance to waiver managers around the state.
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Leadership and Graduate Nursing Role

Leadership is an integral part of all the graduate nurses and, especially, the advanced nurse practitioners. These people play a great role in the management of the patients, mentoring of the young nurses and performing the medical practitioners work, which all require a demonstration of leadership in order to carry out the tasks well. Several leadership styles exist. They are: the democratic leadership, autocratic leadership, laissez- faire and dictatorship. The paper however examines democratic leadership in the graduate nursing roles.
For advanced nurse practitioners, leadership is central to virtually every task they engage. Amongst other things, leadership for these nurses involves taking up administrative duties within the health centers, mentoring the young nurses from universities and colleges, taking charge of activities at the health facilities and handling all the professional activities within his or her powers. The given leadership refers to a kind of participative one where every member of the group is expected to contribute towards the management of the organization. Under this leadership, the decisions are done by the leader but all the other people have an input in the decision making.
As an advanced nurse practitioner, my leadership style is the democratic leadership. The conclusion is reached because of several considerations. First, the belief that every person is an expert in his or her own sphere drives me to understanding that it is necessary to involve all the stakeholders in making any decision. To this extent therefore, an informed decision is reached after considering the views of all the other experts. Secondly, in order to work effectively in a clinical environment, creating good relations is important for achieving success within the organization. In this connection, therefore, giving people a chance to be part of a decision creates a good relationship within the work environment.Third, the need to be the one to make a final decision regarding issues in my workplace makes me a democratic leader. Democratic leaders make the final decisions by themselves, at the same time giving a chance to all the members to become part of a solution. Lastly, my belief that better decisions are made through teamwork further enables me to contemplate that indeed democratic leadership is part and parcel of me. Teamwork enables members to open up each other's minds and subdivide tasks amongst each other, an idea that leads to workers appreciating each other.
Many people today exercise leadership in the nursing sector but not all of them become successful leaders. Due to the peculiar nature of the nursing profession, a successful leader is the one who bears the following attributes. First, he must be able to sacrifice for the sake of meeting the quality care standards of the patients. Secondly he must recognize the need to ensure that the responsibilities are shared for the benefit of the whole organization. A successful leader is one who believes in the empowerment of other members. In addition, such a person must be a good decision maker and one who is ready to involve all others into this process. He also must be able to settle all the hard situations and accusations both from within and without the organization.
Good leadership drives a healthcare organization towards giving quality services to the patients, and this makes me believe in my style. One of the qualities that make me stand out as a leader in the nursing career is my commitment to excellence. This, however, does not come on a silver platter, but through hard work and perseverance. Sometimes, I am forced to go without sleep all in the name of fighting for quality care for the patients. Secondly, I believe in categorizing issues from the most urgent to the least urgent for quick intervention. Further, nurses play a critical role towards giving hope to the patients and their families, and therefore treating patients with the courtesy they deserve is what I stand for. My leadership is about creating a culture of customer satisfaction as a priority. In addition, leadership is not only about individual development but the growth of the entire team. In this regard, I am committed towards nurturing other leaders which is a core attribute in nursing practice. My aim is also aligned towards ensuring the satisfaction of all the employees and, at the same time, ensuring accountability. Communication is my leadership strength as well, as I am committed to ensure that all the members of my organization, whichever the level they belong, get the required information. Lastly, my belief in rewarding success makes me confident I am a good leader in the nursing career.
While I believe that my leadership style is the best for a healthcare center, being a successful nurse practitioner requires one to have several more attributes. First, an advanced nurse practitioner is expected to have patience. Some of the patients will take a shorter time to heal while others will take a longer time, and, therefore, patience will assist. Secondly, dealing with patients requires a lot of perseverance. The nursing career is a calling, and sometimes nurses have to sacrifice their social life and sleep for the sake of saving lives. Commitment to work is another key attribute. Nurses are expected to use all their expertise to ensure that they work towards attaining the goals of the profession in any setting. Lastly, nurses are expected to be very respectful. They are called upon to treat the patients and each other in a very respectful manner, avoiding any acts that may taint their integrity.
In conclusion, it is essential to say that the nursing profession is a calling, and as a leader in the nursing career, one is expected to have a very strong personality. As a leader, for example, I believe that democracy is the best kind of leadership because it gives me a chance to make decisions based on expertise. It also enables me to grow my fellow members. As a nurse, however, an individual is expected to have patience, integrity, commitment and respect.
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The Killer Show

Human security is currently the top priority. In the world where human life is of great value, not only do numerous casualties bring various stories but also many people wishing justice, revenge, or this never happening again. No one can deny that fire caused by human negligence is the lesson that everyone has to learn without being amazed again by some miracle survivals or unbelievable reasons for such a tragedy.
One of the first things that struck me was Mike Vargas story. Having spent 90 minutes at the bottom of the huge burning human pile, not only has Mike survived, but he also received only minor burns. He was discharged from the hospital next afternoon. Such an escape made me not only surprised, but also curious. Was it his lucky star, fate of all other 30 people, or just the safest position for Mike?
Not less flabbergasting than the first fact is the second one — the number of coincidences. So many people became victims of the Station tragedy simply by chance: they were not the great fans of Great White or they were not going to attend the concert on February, 20 at the Station. They simply got into Jack Russells fortunate guest list. I felt extremely sorrowful for those people and at the same time angry at such twists of fate.
People had not more than 90 seconds from the initial ignition to escape from fire. What are we capable of doing in 90 seconds? This point made me pensive. I have come to the conclusion that we do not fully appreciate the time we have, we continue arguing, getting angry or offending while nothing is endless, and you never know when your 90 seconds are coming.
The fourth point was not an easy one to choose. I am torn between Jeff Raiders last photo and the duty of ME investigator Kingston to examine all the bodies at the Station on his own. The second was more potent than the first. On the one hand, I was astonished by his courage to make such a commitment, while on the other hand, by complete irresponsibility of others, who did not provide a shift for him and mental health assistance after he had finished his work.
Last but not least, the point concerns the overcrowding of the club. How could the maximum number of visitors grow by eight times since 1969, even taking into account that purpose of the building had changed from serving food and delicious meals to listening to the rock star groups? Such pursuit of money by the buildings owners and state fire authorities is simply beyond my understanding.
This is probably the reason why I, like many Rhode Island residents, would not say that justice prevailed. 500 hours of community service or 4 years to serve for greed and inattentiveness of the nightclub owners do not compensate even a half of the pain and troubles that victims and their relatives have had to go through. I felt like Derderian brothers were to pay more than the probation period and 1 million dollars. My stance is as follows — the higher your guilt is, the more you are to pay, if not with money then with years of community work and probation.
Although John Barylick fully describes why fire marshal Larocque omits even the opening of the case against him, it does not mean it has been the right or best decision. I do believe that The Station tragedy was not an accident, because an accident is something that you could not have prevented. This fire would have not caused so many casualties if club owners, Great White manager and state fire authorities had followed the instructions and had not chosen the cheapest solution.
I feel like a criminal action had to be applied to Jack Russell as he had formed the program of the event and he was not against attracting more fans by special pyro effects. Seeing him on TV or hearing that he gives a concert is very unlikely to be the expected outcomes by the victims families.
Applied civil action to Sealed Air Corporations seemed invalid to me. Even though they did sell the foam blocks to The Station ex-owner, almost ten had passed since that day, and the company could not have known the purpose of the purchase.
Having read this book, I started to put safety as the priority. I have always thought first about the general picture of the event (concept, place, spark, and host) or how important it is to have a good PR campaign, which remains essential; however, no PR campaign or famous host will let you forget people, of whose death you are guilty. There are a number of steps I am going to take from this time on as an event manager. First, to find an appropriate by size and documents venue for any special effects planned during the event. The second step is to provide adequate training on emergency evacuation for the staff and check the availability of automatic sprinklers and fire extinguishers. I also have to be sure that the area per person in the room is 0.6 or more square meters.
China, Brazil, Russia, Romania are the countries where the lesson of the Station tragedy has not been learned. While some may think that the main point of a lawsuit is punishment or acquirement of justice, avoiding the same mistakes would actually be the idea. Be responsible for your actions, and remember the devil is in the details.
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A business organization is an act whereby an entrepreneur or a group of entrepreneurs manage different business activities and cooperate in order to achieve various objectives effectively. Business administration involves managing and coordinating daily business activities. Understanding of business organization and administration is crucial for all business stakeholders, employees, entrepreneurs and even the general public because the business environment affects its general community. Understanding of business organization and administration also assists in dealing with daily situations that play an important role in the lives of the common people. The growing number of people in the business environment raises questions over their knowledge of the activities that are involved in business management. Understanding of different political, social, legal, microeconomic and macroeconomic conditions is crucial for management, as well as for the general business community.
The structure of the business community entails the arrangement of a business organization that facilitates movement of goods and services from the producer to the consumer. It begins with understanding of business ideas and practices and demands knowledge of complex of commerce with external business environment and attitudes. Entrepreneurs are interested in starting businesses that will both fulfill their objectives and be in line with their abilities. These abilities include the available initial capital, human resource, ease in starting the business and other factors. The entrepreneurs should also understand the business structure in order to plan an appropriate implementation of their ideas. Basic business understanding is applicable to all levels of the business community. The business environment constantly undergoes various changes. This is why even business managers and executive officers must know the basic business structure well in order to understand these changes.
Those companies that are really successful usually have employees with the proper understanding of business organization and administration. These employees possess knowledge about business structure and other activities that are involved in business management. The understanding of business equips people with knowledge and skills that are important for effective team building, as well as for effective business management. The study of basic business structure with its business units and commerce sectors is crucial, especially to those who have minimal experience in business. It assists beginners in gaining knowledge for managerial functions, skills and roles that are necessary for success in the competitive world of business. Understanding business structure also helps the society to understand economic activities, which include basic knowledge of commerce, business units, the trading chain, finance and business sectors.
Modern-day business management relies heavily on managers’ knowledge of business structure and administration. It would be impossible for a manager to run a company without knowledge of the company’s internal and external environment. Understanding of business structure also assists entrepreneurs to choose which business unit to start: sole proprietorship, partnership, private or private limited company. The entrepreneurs’ understanding of the business environment and structure will help them in making important decisions that will affect the management and the activities of the business. The objective of any business organization is to make profit through increasing revenue and minimizing costs. Particular attention should be paid to competition, consumer demands and market structure. Understanding the structure of business organizations assists managers in creating an appropriate chain of product distribution after it was manufactured and placing the organization strategically according to its objectives. The organization can either be a producing company, wholesaler, retailer, a collective organization or the one that is in the public sector. The management incorporates different financial aspects that appear to be important components of any business. They include capital, company finance, its position as an economic sector and its ownership and control. The last aspect assists in planning a chain of commands that would control the management of the business. It also eliminates disputes on how to share profits at the end of every financial year.
In order to become a successful entrepreneur, one should know not only the structure of the business community, but organization within the business as well. This entails understanding management principles, as well as the internal environment and its coordination in order to achieve the ultimate results of the business process. It includes understanding of management principles. The management of a business organization is simply a combination of the top officials in the organization who undertake administration. They take care of business planning, policy formulation and daily control. An individual who is in charge of management is the Managing Director. Other officials with lower ranks include the general manager and departmental managers. The management undertakes such activities as departmentalization, delegation and job specialization among other control activities. There are different departments, such as the human resource, finance, production, sales and marketing, according to the size and type of a business organization. Such smaller businesses as retail stores can have all these departments under one manager or even under the owner’s control. The management is the most important part of the business organizations since they are responsible for organization, control and coordination of daily business activities. They report directly to the owners or shareholders and are responsible for either profits or losses in the business.
Different business organizations have different management structures and hierarchy arrangement. The main factors that cause this difference are the size of the business and the nature of business activities. The entrepreneurs plan the management structure in accordance with the structure of the organization. Each manager has different responsibilities and authority. The successes or failures of junior employees in each department are the direct results of the effectiveness of the manager. Therefore, management decisions and structure are crucial for modern business administration. The management should use modern technologies, information technologies in particular, in order to carry out their activities effectively. Modern surveillance technologies can assist managers to overlook daily business activities in an organization to ensure maximum responsibility for the junior employees. Appropriate motivation of managers leads to appropriate motivation of the employee community. The organization can use this knowledge to plan management structure and control it effectively.
Understanding the management structure raises the question of the role of management and how managers can use their position for effective administration. This brings out the importance of communication. Communication is simply relaying messages from one person to another. Communication in a business organization can be lateral, horizontal, or diagonal. Lateral communication is the one between employees of the same level in the same or different departments. Horizontal communication is the one between junior and senior employees in one department. Diagonal communication is the one between junior and senior members in different departments of an organization. Formal communication assists in passing messages that are crucial for daily business activities. Informal communication, on the other hand, assists in team building and creating a healthy working environment. Communication is a powerful tool, which, if used appropriately, can guarantee the highest management effectiveness. It can assist the organization in achieving its objectives and, at the same time, in maintaining a healthy working environment. This is especially crucial in modern business management.
A business organization has different departments, which include the production, purchasing and stock control, finance, sales and marketing and personnel departments. These departments assist the organization in job specialization, which ensures effective running of the business. Production involves transformation of raw materials into the final product. The nature of production determines such factors as the location of the plant, equipment, management techniques, research, development and design. Production is the reason why the organization exists. Purchasing and stock control entails buying raw materials and stocking for those business organizations that deal with finished goods and products. It also involves control of the produced goods. Marketing involves finding customers for the goods or services that an organization produces and selling the final product. The personnel department is in charge of the human resources. They take care of hiring and sacking the employees. The knowledge of structure and the purpose of departments in organizations is crucial in modern business management because they enable specialization in businesses. It is particularly helpful in coordinating activities of the departments in order to enable the organization to achieve its objectives.
Understanding business organization and administration is important not only to people in the business community, but also to the general public because anybody can join the business world through such activities as purchase of shares and stocks. Any act that is performed by an individual with the aim of making profits is a business activity. People need information on business activities that would enable them to make important business decisions. The modern world requires people to be financially stable. The business world gives great opportunities to those with entrepreneurial skills to make an extra income. This does not mean that all people should go for Master’s degree in business administration and terminate their current employment positions. They can start by learning these basic business organization and administration principles. This knowledge will assist them in understanding the business world before joining it.
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