Emotional and Behavioral Disability

Emotional and behavioral disability refers to a certain set of disorders which affect children and adolescents. While some of the disability issues can be considered normal for children, they often lead to the development of chronic hostility, defiance, aggression, and disruption. Such disorders often cause a lot of problems at home, work or school, spoil relationships, and make it almost impossible to lead a healthy and happy way of life. Depression and bipolar disorder can result from the behavioral disorders of children. Nowadays, the most vulnerable group of people who easily succumb to these problems are students. Poor time-management, lack of motivation in combination with acute psychological situations at home, as well as among peers, lead to the excessive stress, nervousness, and often aggressive behavior which is especially typical for teenagers. Therefore, it is vital to track down the causes of this illness and try to figure out the best treatment that can at maximum mitigate harmful effects on both the ill person and his or her surroundings, if not cure completely.
People affected by behavioral disability may throw extended and frequent tantrums, harm others or even themselves, commit crimes, smoke, or use strong drugs, as well as alcohol, lie often, be openly disobedient, and experiment with sex at an early age. Frequently, they may skip or totally fail at work or school. Such people are inclined to suicidal endeavors twice as often as people who do not suffer from behavioral or emotional disorders.
Despite the fact that it is quite difficult to establish the cause of behavioral disability, risk factors can be easily tracked. Family records of substance abuse or mental illness, influence of tobacco or illegal drugs during the period of fetal development, as well as constant stress, abuse, poor supervision, and extremely harsh discipline with unexpected outburst may directly lead to such problems. It is often observed among children who suffer from behavioral disorders that they are prone to have other emotional mental or behavioral disorders, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Behavioral disorders cannot be associated with psychiatric issues, including schizophrenia, major depression, or serious problems with personal development (for example, Autism Spectrum disorders). Behavioral disability is diagnosed in young people whose behavior does not allow them to function successfully in an educational environment, endangering either their peers or themselves. There are two categories of these disabilities: Conduct disorder (more severe) and oppositional defiant disorder (less aggressive and serious).
The indispensable characteristic of conduct disorder is a recurring and continuous model of behavior when the essential rights of other individuals or main age-corresponding norms of society are violated. Students with this disorder are allocated to self-contained classrooms or assigned special programs until there is a significant improvement in their behavior, so they can participate in general educational settings. Individuals with conduct problems are extremely aggressive, and tend to hurt other students. They rebel or ignore conventional behavioral rules.
Students with oppositional defiant disorder behave calmer but are prone to be negative, defiant and argumentative. They are not aggressive, destructive or violent, as those affected by conduct disorder. However, their inability to collaborate with peers or adults frequently isolates them from the rest of society and prevents them from social, as well as academic success. The common feature of both disorders is that they are usually diagnosed only in individuals under age eighteen. Individuals older than eighteen are commonly evaluated for any antisocial behavior or similar personality problems that prevent society from successful and safe functioning. These are usually psychiatric disorders which include eating, manic-depression (bipolar), anxiety, psychotic, and obsessive-compulsive disorders. The treatment of these problems is the same as the treatment of behavioral and emotional disorders for individuals under eighteen years old.
Serious or old behavioral disability can be extremely difficult to treat; nonetheless, early identification and interference may be very helpful. The main goal of the treatment often focuses around skill development for both adults and children. Participation of a healthcare professional is essential to choose the most appropriate course of cure. Community, educational, and various social programs can also mitigate the harmful impact.
Other important symptoms of emotional disability are constant problems with sleeping, suicidal or irrational behavior, risky, violent, and destructive actions which cause physical harm; alcohol poisoning, drugs overdose, threatening activities, sharp mood swings as well as other factors that may cause significant harm to the patient and people around him or her should be the first sign to address a health care professional for immediate examination.
The best ways to mitigate and improve the behavioral and emotional disability of the students, it is vital to:
· Avoid, ignore or rationalize bad behavior;
· Develop a clear pattern of punishments and rewards;
· Pay more attention to the activities of the students;
· Set clear expectations;
· Reduce stress at home, as well as in class;
· Participate more in the personal life of the student;
· Give the students with behavioral or emotional disability the opportunity to make their own decisions, however, set strict limits to what is right and what is wrong;
· Never punish good behavior if it is still not good enough but the students are trying;
· Discipline only in a calm state of mind and only according to the level of misbehavior.
Students who suffer serious emotional or behavioral disorders are unable to learn and it cannot be explained by sensory, health, or intellectual factors. They cannot sustain or start new mutual relationships with either teachers or peers. Even in typical environments and situations they can behave inadequately or inappropriately. These students are constantly haunted with depression or feel totally unhappy, frequently being unable to explain the reasons for such mood. Fears of any kind are everywhere with these students, especially, concerning their school and family life.
Students who were diagnosed with behavioral disorder often sign up for special education support, attending general classes at the same time. The majority, however, start self-contained programs in order to obtain the behavioral, emotional and social skills and work out strategies which will help them cope with general education programs. Sadly, a lot of students with emotional or behavioral problems are assigned special programs that limit their interaction with the students from the local schools, as the environment fails to respond to their needs.
Emotional and behavioral disability constitutes a serious problem in today's society; a problem that was not known just a couple of decades ago. Technological and scientific progress creates not only an easier life of quick pace, but also a large number of ecological, social, and personal issues that make people take unreasonable steps in their run after the material treasures of the world.
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Infectious Diseases of Global Concern

The history of infectious diseases is very long. Finding the ways to manage most of the infectious diseases has become a relief for the whole world especially the developing countries. The credit, of course, chiefly goes to the World Health Organization (W.H.O) for its relentless efforts to manage the crises. However, there still remains a number of diseases which continue to pose a threat to the global population and whose rate of spread can be very high. Some of the notorious infectious diseases of global concern include TB, malaria, HIV/AIDS, cholera, and hepatitis. Collectively, these diseases have caused an overwhelming number of deaths in the whole world, more so in Sub-Saharan Africa, which accounts for more than half of the fatalities. The article “Emerging Diseases Remain a Global Concern” summarizes the information on some of these diseases and steps towards finding a solution on how to combat them.
TB is a bacterial infection caused by mycobacterium complex. Many drugs have been created, but multi-drug resistant strains continue to emerge. The resistance stems from mutations in the bacteria that makes both isoniazid and rifampin ineffective. Some other methods of resistance used by MDR-TB include drug modification and inactivation of enzymes, change of cell wall ligands and drug efflux systems that eject the drug before it acts. Its method of transmission involving the exchange of droplets through coughing makes TB a real threat for heavily crowded public places.
HIV/AIDS and cholera, though being under control in the United States and other developed countries, still remain a nightmare in the developing countries. Sub Saharan Africa has one of the highest rates of transmission of HIV/AIDS. Due to scarcity of clean water and lack of proper hygiene in Africa and other developing countries, cholera has also become one of the biggest causes of human mortality. The vaccine for malaria has remained elusive over the years. The drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum continues to cause fatalities among children and pregnant women especially in Asian and African nations. According to the research, malaria causes an estimated 1.3 million deaths annually, mainly among women and children.
The importance of this article to the nursing profession cannot be overemphasized. Nursing as a profession entails dealing with some of these infectious diseases on a daily basis. As such, the information contained in this article comes in handy as a way to adequately prepare the students to the expectations of their practice. There are many challenges in the nursing profession. Any information that sheds light on the reality of health state in the world is very important.
This article also summarizes the steps taken by various organizations in dealing with problems emanating from infectious diseases. Globally, W.H.O has been very active using community-based strategies to deal with the crises caused by infectious diseases. Some of these strategies involve the placement of adverts in the local and international media to aggressively campaign for the observation of hygiene. WHO has also facilitated the provision of free treatment and medication for most of these infectious diseases, especially TB. In addition, WHO has provided free condoms for distribution in countries with high prevalence of HIV/AIDS.
In conclusion, several diseases continue to be a cause of global concern. Among them, there are malaria, cholera, TB, and HIV/AIDS to name a few. Thanks to WHO’s coming up with and implementing global strategies, the number of fatalities caused by these diseases was significantly reduced. However, still a lot needs to be done in order to create an infection-free environment for the human population.
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Black Culture Representation Challenges in Cinematography

Cultural representation is one of the major advantages of contemporary narrative cinema. It enables the translation of the alien cultures into the artistic language and its projection for the audiences worldwide. At the same time, it implies the framework of the recipient culture through the framework of its values and principles. The current research shows that the representation of the Black culture is still keen on abstractions and archetypes acquired from the former white person’s perspective. Moreover, it suggests that acceptance of the archetypal reflection of the Black culture makes the process ambivalent.
The selection of visual means remains crucial for cultural representation. According to Mulvey, the cinema “satisfies a primordial wish for pleasurable looking” that implies the necessity of the “reality’s translation”. As a result, the actualizing of tribal or Black culture requires refinement and anesthetization to satisfy the demands of the audience. Mulvey explains that recognition in its turn borders with “mis-recognition” when reality is sacrificed in favor of the picture. As a result, the “superior” culture frequently “patronizes” the projected one.
The representation influences the language selection. Fanon’s analysis reveals that the knowledge of the French language has been a defining factor among the superior and inferior social strata in African society since the XIX century. Accordingly, “everyone …waits for the newcomer to speak” to define its origin attribution and social status. As a result, the language matter derives from the ability of finding contact with the colonizers.
The representation of the indigenous culture is observed as “primitive” by the movie makers. The experience of Deren reveals that credible reflection of the rituals “in general, had been represented as yielding their true meaning only to a scholarly investigation”. However, the suggested primitivism was meaningful to the movie makers only after the re-translation and the first-person experience. The authors explain that historic and esoteric research are frequently lacking in those devoting their lives to documentalism. The true documentary list from Deren’s perspective should “endure” the events and participate personally in the research subject. Accordingly, the understanding of cultural representation as “leisure” should vanish from the mind of the average cinematographer.
Even though the motion picture brings out large possibilities for the reality transaction, it still creates a “reality metaphor”. The cinematography may travel in time and space, however, it persists in the aberrational imaginary to manipulate the audience’s opinion. Similarly, before the human rights movement, the cultural representation embodied the discrimination policy of the colonizing states.
The creative integrity of the cultural representation will never yield to the elements of reality. The “reality logic,” Derren emphasizes, is frequently “forced” to provide facts in a particular way. The refrain of the reality is “deliberately” performed to suit the audience’s purposes and the potential demands. Thus, the unprepared audience required recommendations and comments on the nature of the cultural phenomena, i.e. the tribal movements in African shamanic history or the Voodoo rituals of the New Orlean diaspora.
To conclude, cinematography pursues cultural and pleasure functions in modern culture. At the same time, it remains the indication of the political, social, and religious frames of the recipient culture. Moreover, it establishes the aesthetic principles of the culture. The Black culture perspective shows that large remoteness and excessive aestheticism suit the purposes of the potential audience. It pursues archetypal representation despite the modern globalizing processes in accordance with the recent research and overview. Visual means, language, and cultural representation reflect the cinematography policy turning the physical reality into the state of art and evaluation.
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Structural Functionalism

Deviance is often viewed differently by members of the community. While some may view it as justifiable, others may not. In conjunction to this, this paper utilizes the theory of structural functionalism in explaining abortion as a controversial issue in the contemporary community. Arguably, this theory originates from the foundation works of Emile Durkheim, who suggested that society comprises different yet related parties that have individual roles to play in the community. As such, these parties include the family, government, media, education, economy, and religion. According to the functionalism theory, each of the above mentioned institutions plays a significant role in sustaining the community. Should an institution fail to perform its task, it is considered dysfunctional. Thus, engaging all the institutions that make up a social setting, structural functionalism enhances orderliness in the society through principles established by its stakeholders.
By definition, a social setting refers to an environment in which institutions that make up a society reside. In this particular case, however, the social setting for abortion refers to the circumstances that necessitate the undertaking of a procedure. Needless to say, there is no specific rule that defines how to deal with abortion since the circumstances may differ. To start with, the mother may feel insecure about having a child due to her age, marital, or financial status. Also, she may be obliged to do away with the pregnancy if it poses a serious threat to her health. In such a setting, doctors play the main role in securing safe methods of an abortion. Moreover, the education level concerning the subject is particularly important as it determines whether the victims have appropriate knowledge regarding the consequences of the procedure which they wish to undertake.
Needless to say, there are always rules that govern people’s conduct in any social setting. Arguably, these rules form the basis for preventing deviances in the society. In the case of abortion, various moral principles govern people’s views regarding the issue. To start with, youngsters are encouraged to abstain from engaging in sexual activities. Moreover, those who are already involved in sexual relationships are advised to use contraceptives to prevent an unwanted pregnancy. What is more, infidelity and instances of forced intimacy are highly discouraged in such a setting. Married couples are advised to indulge in family planning methods. This will ensure them to conceive only when they are in a position to. To be precise, the ‘appropriate time' may be linked to the number of years in marriage, the number of children the family already has, the health condition of spouses, or the overall financial position of the family. Additionally, such a setting prohibits any form of sexual encounter between minors and adults. Through these rules, the moral values of community members are regulated to prevent instances of unwanted pregnancies.
As aforementioned, various institutions are responsible for upholding morals in a community. Potts, Dale, and Sipe contend that institutions are by far the most important stakeholders that uphold orderliness in a society. As such, they include the government, education, religion, media, and the economy. To start with, the government maintains the moral expectations of people in a community through enacting tough laws that, when defied, may attract imprisonment. Arguably, these laws may be related to rape cases, infidelity, sexual encounters involving minors, or family disputes. On the other hand, the education sector plays a significant role in upholding the moral values by educating members of the community regarding the negative implications attributable to abortions. Equally significant are the repercussions placed by the family regarding members who stray by conceiving involuntarily. As such, these consequences may include expulsion from the family or divorce, in cases whereby the spouse is promiscuous.
Additionally, the media plays a very significant role in matters concerning society. It is done by highlighting the negative implications of abortion to discourage members of the community from engaging in the practice. As such, this may involve featuring news about the number of deaths caused by abortions, culprits imprisoned for engaging in unwarranted sexual practices, or success testimonials of children from humble backgrounds who have grown to support their ailing families. Similarly, religion is essential in offering advice to religious members of the society, who feel compelled to undertake abortions. On a wider spectrum, the economy of a country may encourage or discourage abortions based on the context itself. For instance, in countries whereby abortion has been legalized, hospitals may lower the prices for the procedure to prevent economic losses that arise from backstreet abortions. However, in instances whereby abortion is illegal, hospitals hike up prices for abortions to discourage the practice.
Taking a closer look, individuals in the institutions mentioned above have specific roles to play. To begin with, magistrates are responsible for assessing the conditions under which the abortion was done to determine whether it was justified. In cases where a minor was defiled, magistrates are obligated to ensure that necessary actions are taken against the oppressors. Also, magistrates may follow up by placing the criminals under a reforming program to reduce chances of recidivism once they are released. On the other hand, teachers are required to report students who camouflage pregnancy so that necessary actions may be taken by the relevant parties.
Additionally, the family is by far the most important component in preventing abortions by raising children in a righteous way devoid of immoral behavior. Moreover, parents are compelled to act as a role model by upholding fidelity to their spouses. Siblings are also obliged to offer advice to each other on the topic of abortion, which may be too sensitive for them to openly discuss with their parents. On the part of the media, news reporters play a significant role by unearthing negative abortion-related stories, which may be of much benefit to the general public. Religion is among the most accommodating of all institutions that make up a society. As such, nuns could either expel members who undertake abortions or encourage the mother to save the baby and dedicate it to the church as its surrogate caregiver. Finally, businessmen who run the medical economy can control abortion exercises by either decreasing or increasing the availability and price of drugs and services related to abortions.
On the whole, structural functionalism is primarily based on unifying efforts from various stakeholders in the society to ensure orderliness is maintained. The contribution of every institution is required to ensure there are no loopholes in the important community principles. As such, legal entities are responsible for enforcing laws which discourage abortions, whereas the education sector is liable for informing members of the community about matters concerning the issue. Similarly, the media highlights sensitive information about abortions, whereas religion offers spiritual guidance regarding preservation of life. Also, economists are liable for controlling the rate of abortions through the pricing of this activity. In essence, the arrangement of structural functionalism is contingent upon the integration of different arms of the community to uphold similar values.
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